Side Effects and Complications of Magnetic Resonance Contrast Media
Keywords:magnetic resonance imaging, gadolinium, gadolinium induced nephrotoxicity, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
AbstractContrast media used in radiology are iodine based for computed tomography (CT) examinations and gadolinium based for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Initially, gadolinium based contrast media were thought to be safe and non-nephrotoxic. Later on, several studies revealed that they can also be nephrotoxic at increased doses. Additionally, another complication from their use is systematic nephrogenic fibrosis. Gadolinium based contrast media can be safe in healthy and renal insufficiency patients if used at specific doses. These complications are herein briefly reviewed and guidelines and techniques for their avoidance are discussed.
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).