Cardiorenal Syndrome: A Glimpse Into Some Intricate Interactions
Keywords:renal insufficiency, heart failure, cardiorenal syndrome, renocardiac syndrome, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, cardiac biomarkers, renal biomarkers
It is well known that heart and kidney functions are interdependent; primary disorders of one organ have been shown to affect the other organ (organ cross-talk). Over the last decade, growing interest and attention has been drawn to this interaction; the term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) has been coined and 5 types of CRS have been recognized, whereby a vicious cycle is proposed of acute or chronic dysfunction of either the kidney or the heart which can trigger and aggravate dysfunction of the other organ. This interrelation in which one system negatively influences the other system calls for a closer examination of its pathophysiology, a more systematic approach for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome, and more intensive investigation for potential preventive measures. An overview of these complex interactions is herein attempted.
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).