Cardiorenal Syndrome: A Glimpse Into Some Intricate Interactions


  • Antonis S Manolis Department of Cardiology, Evagelismos General Hospital, Athens
  • Prokopis Papadimitriou Evagelismos Hospital, Athens
  • Theodora A Manolis Patras University School of Medicine, Patras, Greece
  • Theofanis Apostolou Department of Nephrology, Evagelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece



renal insufficiency, heart failure, cardiorenal syndrome, renocardiac syndrome, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, cardiac biomarkers, renal biomarkers


It is well known that heart and kidney functions are interdependent; primary disorders of one organ have been shown to affect the other organ (organ cross-talk). Over the last decade, growing interest and attention has been drawn to this interaction; the term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) has been coined and 5 types of CRS have been recognized, whereby a vicious cycle is proposed of acute or chronic dysfunction of either the kidney or the heart which can trigger and aggravate dysfunction of the other organ. This interrelation in which one system negatively influences the other system calls for a closer examination of its pathophysiology, a more systematic approach for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome, and more intensive investigation for potential preventive measures. An overview of these complex interactions is herein attempted.

Author Biography

Antonis S Manolis, Department of Cardiology, Evagelismos General Hospital, Athens

Specialty: Cardiology