Short Tandem Repeats Loci in Parentage Testing
Keywords:Parentage testing, Short Tandem Repeats (STRs), DNA profile, human DNA typing, genetic polymorphisms, Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)
The need for confirmation or exclusion of biological father and / or biological mother is a social phenomenon, which is imposed by socio-economic and, sometimes, by moral-psychological factors. Modern science has significantly contributed to solving this problem, as many medical methods have been applied for this purpose. Biological markers that have been conducted for distinguishing between individuals were the human ABO blood groups, the Rh, MNS, Duffy, Kidd, and Kell systems, as well as the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) system. For a long time theHLA testing represented the standard testing in forensic genetics, but, due to the linkage disequilibrium and the predominance of certain HLA alleles and as the demand for parentage investigations is rapidly increasing during the recent years, this serological era has been replaced by molecular markers through the introduction of “DNA profiling”, which is based on polymorphisms of short tandem repeats (STRs) loci. Nowadays, “DNA profiling” by analysis of STR loci is the method of choice for human identification and parentage investigations. This technique is the most informative, accurate, robust, rapid, cost-effective method of genotyping and has worldwide acceptance in the courts, as the probability of parentage will typically be greater than 99.99999%.
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